Referent and Expert Power
CNUR 833 Week 9 discussion question Summary Outline: Leadership Read the following chapter : Robbins, S. P. , Coulter, M. & Langton, M. (2009). Management (9th Canadian ed. ). Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall. Chapter 12 Review Week 9 Presentation (Found in Course Materials under Weekly Presentations) Focus on the following elements: 1. How leaders and managers differ. LEADERS â€¢ Develop vision and long term objectives, plans strategy and tactics â€¢ Exhibits leading Beauvoir. Acts to bring change in others congruent with long term objectives â€¢ Innovates for the entire organization â€¢ Asks what and why to change standard practice â€¢ creates vision and meaning for the organization â€¢ uses transformational influence: induces change in values, attitudes, behaviour using personal examples and expertise â€¢ uses empowering strategies to make followers internalize values â€¢ status quo challenger and change creator MANAGERS engages in day to day care taker activities, maintain and allocate resources â€¢ exhibits supervisory behaviour : acts to make others maintain standard job behaviour â€¢ administers subsystems within organizations â€¢ asks how and when to engage in standard practice â€¢ uses transactional influence: induces compliance in manifest behaviour using rewards, sanctions and formal authority â€¢ relies on control strategies to get thing done by subordinates â€¢ status quo supporter and stabilizer 2. How various theories improve our understanding of leadership? Trait theories- early research unable to find the difference leaders from non- leaders â€¢ Later research on the leadership process identified 7 traits associated with successful leadership- drive, the desire to lead, honesty and integrity, self-confidence, intelligence, job-relevant knowledge, and extraversion â€¢ Behavioural theories identified 3 leadership styles- 1. autocratic style- centralized authority, low participation 2. democratic style-involvement, high participation, feedback 3. laissez-faire style- hands -off management Leader behaviour Research findings mixed results- â€¢ no specific style was consistently better for producing better performance â€¢ employees were more satisfied under a democratic leader than an autocratic leader 4. How managers use power and trust to enhance leadership. For manager to lead, manger should have the leadership skill to empower and influence the team or individual to achieve organizational goals by building trust and using power effectively. There are 5 sources of leader power identified: POWER 1. Legitimate power and authority are the same. Leader in position power also likely to have reward and coercive power 2. Coercive power-leaders have the ability to punish or control e. g. employeeâ€™s suspension and demotion or assign unpleasant or desirable work to the workers. Followers react to the power out of fear and consequences for not compliance 3. Reward power- give positive benefits and rewards including anything that another person values e. g. money, favourable performance appraisals, promotions, interesting work assignments, friendly colleagues, and preferred work shifts or sales territories. . Expert power- influence based on expertise, special skills, or knowledge. Managers depend on employeesâ€™ expert to achieve the organizationâ€™s goals due to jobs have become more specialized. 5. Referent power-based on desirable resources or personal traits. Develop out of admiration of another and a desire to be like that person by modelling behaviour and attitudes after the individual DEVELOPING TRUST AND CREDIBILITY TRUST include 5 dimensions 1. integrity- honesty and truthfulness 2. competence- technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills 3. onsistency- reliability, predictability, and good judgement in handling situation 4. loyalty- willingness to protect a person, physically and emotionally 5. openness- willingness to share ideas and information freely â€¢ Honesty is the most important characteristic of admired leader â€¢ Credible leaders are competent and inspiring â€¢ Able to communicate effectively their confidence and competence and inspiration â€¢ Trust and integrity are interrelated and interchangeable Post your views one the 2 discussion questions in the discussion threads. . Describe the differences between a transactional leader and a transformational leader. â€¢ Transactional leaders is more of management leadership style by telling what they wanted the employees to do and give clear structure and expectation to their followers what is expected and required to do the job with full responsibility â€¢ Reward for success of compliances and effort and punishment for failure to motivate employees to achieve short term goal and not long-term goal by increase their performance or productivity. Followers are expected to do the job as an order whether or not there are resources or capability to do it. Employees obey to do the assignment by negotiating a contract with benefits and incentive. â€¢ This leadership style has least interest in changing the working environment and ineffective in promoting job satisfaction. Transformation leadership â€¢ Defined as charismatic leaders of change agents who have confidence and belief in themselves by developing vision and putting their passion and energy to take care of their subordinates to success. with clear vision and direction leaders will be able to inspire their followers to buy into it in order achieve their common goal for the organization â€¢ Some of the characteristics of transformation leader are enthusiasm, active and good listener, visible, build trust, persistent, keep up the momentum by motivating and rallying their followers, show followers their behaviours and attitudes the way every ones else should behave, commitment, celebrate with success, â€¢ This type of leadership enables the leaders to transform organization as they are people oriented and success comes first. Transformational Leaders also tend to see the big picture, but not the details, which could cause failure and also their followers are kept going and may also cause them to give up. References: Robbins, S. P. , Coulter, M. & Langton, M. (2009). Management (9th Canadian ed. ). Toronto: Pearson Prentice Hall. Transformation Leadership. Retrieved on 15-3-2010 from http://changingminds. org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transformational_leadership. htm 2. What types of power are available in your current nursing situation? Which types do you use most often and why? The types of powers most often used by nurses are expert power and referent power. This is because nurses have expert power as they possess skill and knowledge; professional specialized in nursing care that is relevant to the job or tasks. Public and patients look up on nurses for quality of care and health knowledge for their expertise. Thus nurses have the power to influence patients as well as team members by exhibiting trust, honesty, credibility, accountability and integrity. Nurses also have referent power being admired by patient, staff and students. Therefore those who admire nurses with referent power will be over power by the nurses and attempt to model behaviour and attitudes after them. This is because the followers believe the leader posses the quality that they would like to possess. Transactional Leadership 72 rate or flag this page By Edi Kurnik [pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic][pic] [pic]A â€“ Z of Leadership â€¢ A â€“ Z of Leadership How To Improve Your Leadership Skills By Using The Same Secrets Great Leaders Like Gandhi, Martin Luther King, and Alexander The Great Used To Inspire, Motivate and Persuade Virtually Anyoneâ€¦ Related Hubs Leadership Styles â€¢ Quotes on Leadership [pic][pic] [pic][pic][pic]Transactional Leadership buy essay online Leadership style plays a crucial role in the development of an organization. Transactional leadership is of the leadership style that is often used by many companies. Transactional leadership believes that punishment and reward motivate people. This leadership also assumes that when people agree to do a particular assignment, a part of that agreement is that they give up all authority to their boss. The leader holds control and power over the subordinates. The main goal of the employee is to obey the orders of their managers. The idea is that when a subordinate takes up a job, he or she agrees to obey their manager totally. The â€˜transaction' is the money or any other award that the company pays to its subordinates for their compliance and effort. The relationship between the subordinate and the leader becomes transactional. In transactional leadership the leader has the right to punish his or her subordinates if their performance is not according to the predetermined standard. Transactional leadership makes clear that what is equired and expected from their subordinates. It also mentions that subordinates will get award if they follow the orders seriously. Sometimes punishments are not mentioned but they are understood. In the early stages of transactional leadership, subordinate is in the process of negotiating the contract. The contract specifies fixed salary and the benefits that will be given to the subordinate. Rewards are given to subordinates for applied effort. Some organization use incentives to encourage their subordinates for greater productivity. Transactional leadership is a way of increasing the performance of its subordinates by giving them rewards. Transactional leadership is also called as â€˜true leadership style as it focuses on short term goals instead of long term goals. In Transactional leadership, when the leader assigns work to its subordinates, then it is the responsibility of the subordinate to see that the assigned task is finished on time. If the assigned task is not completed on time or if something then punishment is given for their failure. But if they accomplish the task in time then the subordinates are given reward for successfully completing the task. Subordinates are also given award and praised for exceeding expectations. A subordinate whose performance is below expectation is punished and some action is taken to increase his or her performance. Transactional leadership has more of a â€˜telling style'. Transactional leadership is based on the fact that reward or punishment is dependent on the performance. Even though researchers have highlighted its limitations, transactional leadership is still used by many employers. More and more companies are adopting transactional leadership to increase the performance of its employees. This approach is prevalent in real workplace. The main limitation of this leadership is that it assumes that people are largely motivated by simple rewards. Under transactional leadership, employees can't do much to improve job satisfaction. Transaction leadership has been ineffective in providing skilled employees to their organization. This style of leadership is least interested in changing the work environment. Experts do not recommend this approach. Transactional leadership focuses more on management of punishments and rewards. [pic]Rate it: Â up Â down Transactional Leadership Disciplines ; Leadership ; Leadership styles ; Transactional Leadership Assumptions | Style | DiscussionÂ | See also Assumptions People are motivated by reward and punishment. Social systems work best with a clear chain of command. When people have agreed to do a job, a part of the deal is that they cede all authority to their manager. The prime purpose of a subordinate is to do what their manager tells them to do. Style The transactional leader works through creating clear structures whereby it is clear what is required of their subordinates, and the rewards that they get for following orders. Punishments are not always mentioned, but they are also well-understood and formal systems of discipline are usually in place. The early stage of Transactional Leadership is in negotiating the contract whereby the subordinate is given a salary and other benefits, and the company (and by implication the subordinate's manager) gets authority over the subordinate. When the Transactional Leader allocates work to a subordinate, they are considered to be fully responsible for it, whether or not they have the resources or capability to carry it out. When things go wrong, then the subordinate is considered to be personally at fault, and is punished for their failure (just as they are rewarded for succeeding). The transactional leader often uses management by exception, working on the principle that if something is operating to defined (and hence expected) performance then it does not need attention. Exceptions to expectation require praise and reward for exceeding expectation, whilst some kind of corrective action is applied for performance below expectation. Whereas Transformational Leadership has more of a â€˜selling' style, Transactional Leadership, once the contract is in place, takes a â€˜telling' style. Discussion Transactional leadership is based in contingency, in that reward or punishment is contingent upon performance. Despite much research that highlights its limitations, Transactional Leadership is still a popular approach with many managers. Indeed, in the Leadership vs. Management spectrum, it is very much towards the management end of the scale. The main limitation is the assumption of â€˜rational man', a person who is largely motivated by money and simple reward, and hence whose behavior is predictable. The underlying psychology is Behaviorism, including the Classical Conditioning of Pavlov and Skinner's Operant Conditioning. These theories are largely based on controlled laboratory experiments (often with animals) and ignore complex emotional factors and social values. In practice, there is sufficient truth in Behaviorism to sustain Transactional approaches. This is reinforced by the supply-and-demand situation of much employment, coupled with the effects of deeper needs, as in Maslow's Hierarchy. When the demand for a skill outstrips the supply, then Transactional Leadership often is insufficient, and other approaches are more effective. See also Exchange principle, Transformational Leadership Transformational Leadership Disciplines > Leadership > Leadership styles > Transformational Leadership Assumptions | Style | DiscussionÂ | See also Assumptions People will follow a person who inspires them. A person with vision and passion can achieve great things. The way to get things done is by injecting enthusiasm and energy. Style Working for a Transformational Leader can be a wonderful and uplifting experience. They put passion and energy into everything. They care about you and want you to succeed. Developing the vision Transformational Leadership starts with the development of a vision, a view of the future that will excite and convert potential followers. This vision may be developed by the leader, by the senior team or may emerge from a broad series of discussions. The important factor is the leader buys into it, hook, line and sinker. Selling the vision The next step, which in fact never stops, is to constantly sell the vision. This takes energy and commitment, as few people will immediately buy into a radical vision, and some will join the show much more slowly than others. The Transformational Leader thus takes every opportunity and will use whatever works to convince others to climb on board the bandwagon. In order to create followers, the Transformational Leader has to be very careful in creating trust, and their personal integrity is a critical part of the package that they are selling. In effect, they are selling themselves as well as the vision. Finding the way forwards In parallel with the selling activity is seeking the way forward. Some Transformational Leaders know the way, and simply want others to follow them. Others do not have a ready strategy, but will happily lead the exploration of possible routes to the promised land. The route forwards may not be obvious and may not be plotted in details, but with a clear vision, the direction will always be known. Thus finding the way forward can be an ongoing process of course correction, and the Transformational Leader will accept that there will be failures and blind canyons along the way. As long as they feel progress is being made, they will be happy. Leading the charge The final stage is to remain up-front and central during the action. Transformational Leaders are always visible and will stand up to be counted rather than hide behind their troops. They show by their attitudes and actions how everyone else should behave. They also make continued efforts to motivate and rally their followers, constantly doing the rounds, listening, soothing and enthusing. It is their unswerving commitment as much as anything else that keeps people going, particularly through the darker times when some may question whether the vision can ever be achieved. If the people do not believe that they can succeed, then their efforts will flag. The Transformational Leader seeks to infect and reinfect their followers with a high level of commitment to the vision. One of the methods the Transformational Leader uses to sustain motivation is in the use of ceremonies, rituals and other cultural symbolism. Small changes get big hurrahs, pumping up their significance as indicators of real progress. Overall, they balance their attention between action that creates progress and the mental state of their followers. Perhaps more than other approaches, they are people-oriented and believe that success comes first and last through deep and sustained commitment. Discussion Whilst the Transformational Leader seeks overtly to transform the organization, there is also a tacit promise to followers that they also will be transformed in some way, perhaps to be more like this amazing leader. In some respects, then, the followers are the product of the transformation. Transformational Leaders are often charismatic, but are not as narcissistic as pure Charismatic Leaders, who succeed through a belief in themselves rather than a belief in others. One of the traps of Transformational Leadership is that passion and confidence can easily be mistaken for truth and reality. Whilst it is true that great things have been achieved through enthusiastic leadership, it is also true that many passionate people have led the charge right over the cliff and into a bottomless chasm. Just because someone believes they are right, it does not mean they are right. Paradoxically, the energy that gets people going can also cause them to give up. Transformational Leaders often have large amounts of enthusiasm which, if relentlessly applied, can wear out their followers. Transformational Leaders also tend to see the big picture, but not the details, where the devil often lurks. If they do not have people to take care of this level of information, then they are usually doomed to fail. Finally, Transformational Leaders, by definition, seek to transform. When the organization does not need transforming and people are happy as they are, then such a leader will be frustrated. Like wartime leaders, however, given the right situation they come into their own and can be personally responsible for saving entire companies. See also Appeal principle, Bonding principle, Confidence principle, Pull, The Leadership Challenge Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectation. New York: Free Press. Bass, B. M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, (Winter): 19-31. Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row Style
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